TwinTree Insert

08-05 Faster Image Acquisition by k-Space Manipulation

nother method to accelerate image acquisition is through faster acquisition of image data rather than optimizing pulse sequences. A number of dif­fe­rent ap­proa­ches have been proposed:

spaceholder redReduced Acquisition. Instead of acquiring, for instance, 256 lines, we acquire only 80% and zero-fill the remaining lines. We loose some of the spatial re­so­lu­tion, but for many clinical applications, the raw data are sufficient (Figure 08-09a; cf. Figure 07-07).

Figure 08-09:
(a) The k-space data set in reduced acquisition. (b) The k-space data set in halfscan. Slightly more than 50% of k-space is collected.

spaceholder redHalfscan. In this case we acquire an asymmetrical fraction of the data set. The rest of the data are replaced by the symmetrical data from the other side of k-space. Spatial resolution is maintained, but there is a loss of signal-to-noise (Fi­gu­re 08-09b).

spaceholder redRectangular Field-of-View. The final MR image can be turned into a rect­an­gu­lar image by collecting only half the lines in k-space. By doing this, image time, as well as the field-of-view, will be halved, which is convenient for imaging of the ex­tre­mi­ties and the spine, or in angiography (Figure 08-10). However, the sig­nal-to-noise ratio will also be substantially reduced.

Figure 08-10:
The k-space data set in (a) full-space acquisition, and (b) rectangular field-of-view.

spaceholder redk-Space Substitution. To accelerate dy­namic image data acquisition, one can ap­­ply k-space substitution, also called ‘key­hole’ imaging. This technique collects the entire k-space of a reference image; for the sub­se­quent im­ages, however, only the central lines are recorded.

These data are then combined with the outer lines of the reference data space to add information on edge definition and sharpness. In this way, the uptake of a con­trast agent can be followed very rapidly (Figure 08-11) [⇒ Jones 1993, ⇒ van Vaals 1993].

Figure 08-11:
k-Space substitution.
(a) The entire k-space of a reference image before contrast injection is collected.
(b) For the dynamic part of the study, the cen­tral part of the reference k-space is re­mo­ved.
(c) During the uptake of the contrast agent, only the central parts of k-space are col­lec­ted, and
(d) are combined with the reference data afterwards.

spaceholder redSpiral (Helical) and Radial Scanning. Alternatives to filling k-space line-by-line are spiral (helical) or radial scanning tech­niques (Figure 08-12).

These me­thods are very fast and therefore suited for dynamic imaging and, e.g., for car­diac imaging. They use projection reconstruction (back­projection) algorithms as described earlier.

Figure 08-12:
Spiral k-space filling. Usually one starts by acquiring data for the center of k-space. Spiral filling can be performed in a single shot or interleaved as a multi-shot tech­ni­que. Multi-shot techniques have a higher spatial resolution.